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The order Squamata, or the scaled reptiles, are the largest recent order of reptiles, comprising all lizards and snakes. With over 9,000 species, it is also the second-largest order of vertebrates, after the perciform fish. Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shields. They also possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the neurocranium. This is particularly visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths very wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. They are the most variably sized order of reptiles, ranging from the 16 mm (0.63 in) dwarf gecko (Sphaerodactylus ariasae) to the 5.21 m (17.1 ft) green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) and the now-extinct mosasaurs, which reached lengths of 14 m (46 ft).

Among the other reptiles, squamates are most closely related to tuataras, which strongly resemble lizards.

They date back to the Early Jurassic, but with a supposed Late Triassic record as well.

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